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After more research, I discovered that the term "typhoid fever" was indeed in use by 1864. In fact, Dr. William Budd, who originally made the connection between polluted drinking water and "intestinal fever" used the term as the title of his 1861 book, The Propagation of Typhoid Fever.
So... yay! I saved myself some work.
Janet Stafford, Squeaking Pips Founder